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M I L T E R M S : fingerspelled letter J semaphor letter J signal flag letter J J : JULIET

The emphasis of this educational reference is on words and phrases that appear in published works about war and military service; and amongst this jargon and slang, there is no pretense of objectivity or completeness, which may be readily found in official documents or government resources. This fragmentary opus is a work in progress ....

Caveat Lector: Vulgar, profane, and obscene dysphemisms, which have been used for every part of speech and rhetorical form, have not been Bowdlerized nor expurgated from this glossary, to the undoubted dismay of purists and the evident enrichment of our mother-tongue; so immature or hypersensitive persons should refrain from perusing this indubitably eclectic and contingently egregious compendium. Swearing is usually either juvenile or crass, but military personnel admire talent and respect skill, so the ability to create imaginative expletives and to craft uncommon scurrility is often appreciated.


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J :
an aircraft prefix under the Joint Service Designation System that represents '(temporary) test'.

THE J :
the PLAIN OF JARS (Plaine des Jarres), near Long Tieng. Also, slang for "the jungle", for the bush, sticks, woods, barrens, brush, weeds, scrub, veg, rough, BOONDOCKS / BOONIES, THULE, INDIAN COUNTRY, bad lands, hinterlands, bandit country, or anywhere "out in the field". [nb: Vietnamese term: Rung (forest)] [nb: as a tactical element, the jungle is neutral, offering the same advantage or disadvantage to both sides; so it only becomes a factor when troops are exploited by their ignorance of it, or strategy does not exploit its latent opportunities]

JAAF :
Joint Army and Air Force, or Joint Action Armed Forces.

JACK :
acronym representing Joint Advisory Commission Korea, an interservice unconventional warfare (UW) or guerrilla operations unit affiliated with the CIA during the KOREAN WAR. The covert techniques established by OSS, enhanced by UNPFK and JACK, were inherited by SOG, and have since been passed to Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC) and US Special Operations Command (USSOC). See SPECIAL OPERATIONS. Also, a small flag (ENSIGN) flown at the bow of a vessel symbolizing its nationality. Also, informal reference to a sailor. Also, any of various portable devices (mechanical, pneumatic, or hydraulic) that are used for temporarily raising or lifting heavy objects a short height from the ground; compare BLOCK, BOOM, WHIP, FAIRLEAD, FALL, CRAB, PARBUCKLE, TACKLE. Also, a male jackass ('dickey', as distinguished from 'hinny'); see DONKEY, MULE.

JACKAL :
someone who performs dishonest or base deeds as the follower or accomplice of another. Also, someone who performs menial or degrading tasks for another. Also, any of several breeds of nocturnal wild dogs that scavenge or hunt in packs, and range throughout Asia and Africa.

JACKASSISTAN :
during the GULF WARs, sardonic reference by MIL-PERS to those Middle Eastern and West Asian provinces or countries that're the site for extreme foolishness, as performed by contemptibly stupid people, especially those rigidly bound by tribal mores and traditional customs; a landscape predominated by jackasses. Compare ABSURDISTAN; see THE STANS, JAWBREAKER, ALPHABET SOUP, MUJ, HAJJI, RAGHEAD.

JACKBOOT :
any sturdy leather boot that reaches up to or over the wearer's knee, as worn by soldiers. [cf: Hessian boots, seven-league boots, top boot, Wellington boot] Also, anyone who uses the JACKBOOT tactic of intimidation.

JACKBOOT TACTICS :
behavior that is excessively militaristic or aggressively authoritarian, especially brutally bullying measures.

JACKET :
informal reference to the personnel record of a servicemember, also called a "service jacket", that normally designates a "201 file" containing Form 20 / 66 summary outline of training, assignments, evaluations, and decorations; it is so-called as a "covering" report, and not to be confused with a "file" folder for work projects. Also, slang reference to the FIELD JACKET.

JACKSTAFF :
(forthcoming);

JACOB'S LADDER :
a flexible ladder consisting of rope, cable, or chain side-rails and fixed wooden or aluminum rungs, as used on vessels and aircraft, especially during SAR/CSAR operations; also called a "pilot ladder" or "jack ladder", "caving ladder" or "scaling ladder", as derived from the Biblical dream of a ladder ascending from earth to heaven. Also, a webbing or rope ladder (ie: etrier) deployed (from RAMP or HELL HOLE) for rough-terrain INSERTIONs and/or EXTRACTIONs of troops using transport CHOPPERs; employed instead of DEBARKATION NETs, SPY RIGGING, or RAPPEL lines. [v: escalade] [v: Climbing Terms]

JACOB'S STAFF / JACOB'S STAVES :
a measuring instrument consisting of a calibrated staff with another shorter staff perpendicular to and sliding on it, as used for calculating the angle of elevation of objects, including heavenly bodies; also called "forestaff" or "cross-staff". See AIMING STAKES, PINTLE, STANCHION. [v: pelorus]

JAG :
U.S. Army Judge Advocate General's
corps branch insignia U.S. Army Judge Advocate
General's corps branch insignia
Judge Advocate General
Judge Advocate General, as chief legal officer, or Judge Advocate General's Corps, a lawyer in uniform; also known as "legal beagle" or insultingly as "JAG-off" (sounds like "jack-off"; cf: POGUE) for JAG-officer. During the VIETNAM WAR, commissioned officers were still responsible for administering military laws (UCMJ), as both counsel and judges, and an enlisted man (EM) could request an NCO board at his court martial; but JAG representation became mandatory after that time. Legal liability is now a regular part of pre-operational mission BRIEFINGs to ensure that the RULES OF ENGAGEMENT (ROE) are completely understood before any enemy contact occurs. See SJA; compare BARRACKS LAWYER, GUARDHOUSE LAWYER, SEA LAWYER. [v: lawyer, attorney-at-law, counselor, advocate, adviser, jurist, legist, Philadelphia lawyer, pettifogger, mouthpiece, ambulance chaser, shyster, beak] [nb: "Lawyers are like beavers: hard working, but settling into the middle of the stream, and damming it up! For a clean clear stream to flow swiftly, the beavers and their dams have to be eliminated ... the military can't make any progress otherwise."]

JAIL FEVER :
see TYPHUS / TYPHUS FEVER.

JAM :
to interfere with radio signals (or the like) by sending out other signals of approximately the same frequency; see HOPSCOTCH, SURF, HASHING, HITCHHIKE, MEACONING, MIJI, STATIC, NOISE, CHATTER, MUSIC, CROSS-TALK, MUX, RADIO. Also, to block or wedge, displace or obstruct a thing or process, such that it cannot be readily undone or extricated. Also, a colloquialism for any difficult or embarrassing situation. Also, a preserve of whole fruit that's been slightly crushed and boiled with sugar; see RATIONS. [cf: jelly, conserve]

JAMESWAY HUT :
a version of the semicylindrical QUONSET HUT, with wooden ribs and end walls, and an insulated fabric covering, that was created by the James Manufacturing Company of Fort Atkinson Wisconsin for the Army Air Corps to serve as a barracks, storage shelter, or the like during WWII. This portable and easy-to-assemble hut was designed for arctic weather conditions when personnel were wearing bulky clothes and mittens but needed shelter construction to proceed quickly. Insulated blankets in four-foot-wide lengths were made with glass fiber insulation faced with flame-proof muslin and enclosed in plastic-treated cotton that was water-, vermin-, and fire-proof. The hardware (nails, fasteners, and connecting bars) was the only metal component, and the whole package weighed 1,200 pounds for a 16' X 16' hut (extendable in 4' lengths). Its wooden packing crates were designed for re-use as the hut floor. See BLDG, BILLET. [v: British Nissen hut, Canadian Portaseal hut]

JAMOKE :
slang for coffee, or a cup of coffee; perhaps derived by a respelling of 'java' and 'mocha'. See GI JOE; compare BREW.

JANE BOND :
see BABY 007, SECRET SQUIRREL, SECRET AGENT; compare GI JANE.

JAPE :
derogatory WWII Marine slang for Imperial Japanese troops who were thought to be dead but weren't [v: PLAY DEAD], which refers to the necessity of "killing corpses" to ensure their demise, because they were so devious and tenacious; derived by contraction of 'Jap' + 'ape'. See MEATBALL, NIP, GOOK, DINK, SLOPE, SLANT-EYE, RICE BALL, ZIP, CHINK, WOG, LITTLE PEOPLE, BAD GUYS; compare BUDDHAHEAD, LITTLE BROWN BROTHER, INDIG. [nb: although ape and monkey are common slurs of racial comparison or ethnic imputation, such vilification of one's adversary often implied a compliment; as the Marianas' veteran who defined this term expressed it: "A Jap fought you to his dying breath, but a Jape kept coming even after you thought he was dead!"]

JAP SLAPPER :
slang for a martial artist, especially one skilled in judo ('soft' + 'way') or jujitsu/jujutsu ('soft' + 'technique'), aikido (way of the harmonious spirit) or aikijutsu (technique of the harmonious spirit); see BATTLE ROYAL, DOGFIGHT, AT CLOSE QUARTERS, CQB, BUTT STROKE, BAYONET, ON GUARD, UP-CLOSE 'n' PERSONAL, TWO-FISTED, MMA, KNUCKLE SANDWICH, MARTIAL ART, GABRIEL. [v: Japanese gijutsu (technique, art)] [cf: Jack-slap (Jaques-slappé): to defeat egregiously]

JAPTOWN :
see LITTLE TOKYO.

JARGON :
the specialized vocabulary peculiar to a specific occupation, profession, or social group. Also, obscure or unintelligible communication, as language that is characterized by pretentious vocabulary, convoluted syntax, and is uncommonly vague in meaning (eg: "sacred gibberish"), including legalese, academese, officialese, bureaucratese, journalese, and computerese. See PIDGIN, BAMBOO ENGLISH, GOOKANESE, VERNACULAR, POLYGLOT, MIL-SPEAK. [v: bafflegab, gobbledygook, bombast, malarkey, claptrap, bunkum, tommyrot, balderdash] [nb: Zipf's Law of Linguistics asserts that while a few words in any natural language are used quite often, most words are used infrequently, which statistical observation was first made by George Kingsley Zipf]

JARHEAD :
derogatory term, similar to "jughead", applied to anyone as "stupid or stubborn as a mule", including muleskinners and oilfield rough-necks. As a simile for a capped jar, it originally referred to sailors wearing traditional DIXIE CUP hats, but was later transferred (probably in combination with "stubborn mule" reference) to Marines, who also wear a uniquely styled "utility cover" hat. A Marine is commonly known as a "GIrine" (jy-reen) [or GYRENE], and also as "Uncle Sam's Misguided Child" (USMC) or a "seagoing bellhop". The word Marine has been converted into an acronym meaning: Muscles Are Required, Intelligence Not Essential. Compare SNUFFY, CHINA MARINE, SEAGOING MARINE, HORSE MARINE, THE CROTCH, MAMELUKE SWORD, USMC; see GI, SQUID, SWABBY, DOGFACE, ZOOMIE.

JASSM :
Joint Air-to-Surface Stand-off Missile, being a medium range CRUISE missile; see AGM.

JATO :
(jay-toe) Jet Assisted Take-Off, being the ancillary propulsion units that assist short lift-off or combat launch of airplanes by boosting their acceleration; also called "Rocket Assisted Take-Off" (RATO); see JUICE, compare STOL, VSTOL, VTOL.

JAUNDICE :
a yellowish discoloration, as of the skin or sclera, caused by an increase of bile pigments in the blood, which is often symptomatic of certain diseases (eg: hepatitis); also called "icterus" or "the yellows". [cf: physiologic jaundice; v: grasserie] Also, distorted judgements or prejudiced viewpoints, as by envy or resentment.

JAVA :
slang for military coffee, also known as joe, mud, sludge, washy, belly-wash, jamoke, mocha, espresso, brew, black water, brown blood, boiler acid, battery acid, and nectar of the gods; see GI JOE.

JAVELIN :
a man-portable optical anti-tank (AT) MISSILE equipped with a "fire and forget" target-lock guidance system, which supersedes the DRAGON; see LOSAT, TOW, ATGM, CAAT.

JAWBONE :
an account, tab, or tally of indebtedness, especially loanshark or gambling debts; an ostensible Americanism that's purportedly derived from the trading account kept by sutlers on the jawbone of a buffalo, one per customer and recognizably his own for each illiterate trader. Also, talk, converse, palaver, gab, rap, shoot the breeze, chew the rag, chin wag, chin dance; see TALK TRASH, POOP. Also, to influence or persuade without resorting to force or authority. [nb: Zulu warriors took the jawbone (mandible) of their slain enemy and presented it to their chief, who made a trophy of them; cf: EARS]

JAWBREAKER :
any word difficult to pronounce; see ALPHABET SOUP, DOUBLE-BARRELED NAME, THE STANS. Also, anything boring, as to be injured by yawning; saying a course was a JAWBREAKER could mean either tedious or difficult depending upon tone or emphasis; see TRNG, POI, LESSONS LEARNED, MIL-CRAFT, LECTERN, ROSTRUM. [nb: a 'microcentury' (or 52 minutes, 35.69 seconds) denotes the maximum permissible period of a lecture, according to the mathematician John von Neumann] Also, hard candy; see SUGAR PILL, CHARMS; compare RAT BAIT, CLARK BAR, NECCO, POGY BAIT, GEDUNK, HOOAH! BAR.

JAYHAWK :
USCG heavy-lift helicopter (HH-60J) configuration of the single-rotor utility BLACKHAWK and SEA HAWK; see CHOPPER.

J-CODES :
an organizational structure for the STAFF that dates from the 19th century, reorganized in 2007 for the conduct of "war prevention" and "security cooperation activities" as directorates in joint headquarters: J1 Personnel, J2 Knowledge Development, J3 Operations, J4 Logistics, J5 Plans and Programs, J6 Command and Control (C4), J7 Outreach, J8 Resources. The specialty section prefixes are hierarchical representations for S= Staff at brigade or regiment, G= General staff at division or corps, and J= Joint staff at army or group. Senior Navy department prefixes are designated "N-". See STAFF; compare CALL-SIGN [nb: pre-2007 J-CODES directorates: J1 Administration, J2 Intelligence, J3 Operations, J4 Logistics, J5 Plans, J6 Command and Control, J7 Plans and Developments, J8 Force Structure]

JCET :
Joint Combined Exchange Training; temporary duty performed overseas by interservice foreign exchange personnel who cooperatively share doctrine and techniques to improve mil-craft skill sets in anticipation of future coordination.

JCISFA :
Joint Center for International Security Force Assistance.

JCS :
Joint Chiefs of Staff emblem
JCS
the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff; a formal interservice agency of the government, headed by a Chairman (ChJCS), consisting of the heads of the U.S. Armed Forces, established in 1942 [Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCoS)] as the principal military ADVISORs to the (then) Secretary of War, restructured by the Uniformed Services Act of 1947 and the Defense Reorganization Act of 1958. During the VN era, only the ChJCS reported to the National Security Council (NSC); which later expanded to grant JCS access to the President (POTUS). The Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986 restored the primacy and exclusivity of the Chairman's (ChJCS) role without granting direct command authority. A pocket badge is authorized for permanent wear by assigned personnel who successfully perform this duty. See CS, OSD, JCSM, NMCC, NMCS, NMCSSC, JSAD, GRADUATED RESPONSE, FLEXIBLE RESPONSE, JGS, TANK, OLYMPUS. [nb: after being reactivated from retirement and appointed ChJCS, Maxwell D. Taylor attempted to abolish the JCS in favor of a "Supreme Military Council", outside the military CHAIN-OF-COMMAND] [nb: purportedly, the military uses the term "joint" (to join) to indicate two or more elements from the same service or nation, and the term "combined" (by twos) to indicate two or more interservice or international elements, hence a "joint action" might involve the Army and Navy, while a "combined action" might involve the US and UK; additionally, the term "composite" (put together) indicates a compound of disparate elements forming a whole, while the term "component" (put together) indicates constituent elements of a greater whole]

JCSE :
Joint Communications Support Element.

JCSM :
Joint Chiefs of Staff Memorandum; also known as "Joint Staff Memorandum" (JSM).

JDAM :
Joint Direct Attack Munition, being a programmable and steerable guidance system for launched weapons (SMART BOMB or MISSILE) which can strike its assigned target from any altitude under any weather or light conditions by following its ancillary global positioning system (GPS) directions. This conversion technology, which can be retrofitted onto older DUMB BOMBs in inventory, reducing stockpiles while improving efficiency, is functionally "fire and forget". Because JDAM is not laser guided and does not have to be tracked to its point of impact, it allows delivery from a secure location at a safe distance, practically eliminating the risk of loss of any operators and delivery systems. The JDAM was first used in Kosovo during Operation PROVIDE PROMISE, and later in the second GULF WAR. See BOMB, MUNITIONS.

JDOC :
joint Defense Operations Center; see TOC, CTOC, CMOC, OPN.

JEDI KNIGHT :
informal reference to a graduate of the U.S. Army School of Advanced Military Studies (SAMS), being a designation inspired by the characters in the "Star Wars" series; see WAR COLLEGE, C&GS, HUDSON HIGH, BOAT SCHOOL, OCS, ROTC. [v: Siwash ("At Good Old Siwash" by George Helgeson Fitch (1911)]

JEEP :
Army Jeep
Jeep
nickname for the General Purpose quarter-ton TRUCK, including M-38, M-151A2 MUTT; an onomatopoeic term derived from "GP" (GeeP), which resembled the 1936 "Popeye" comic strip character "Eugene the Jeep" so much that the Willys-Overland Motor Company trademarked the name in 1940. JEEPs were often equipped with canvas top or sides, ELEPHANT'S TRUNK line-cutter on front bumper, pedestal-mounted machinegun (MG), and shoulder-high SPLINTER SHIELD armor-plating. See HUMVEE, GAMMA GOAT, DUCK/DUKW, FAV, ORV, MULE. Also, the abbreviation for Joint Emergency Evacuation Plan; see ABNCP, ABCCC, NEACP, LOOKING GLASS, BRINKMANSHIP, KNOCK INTO A COCKED HAT, HOLOCAUST, DOOMSDAY.

JEEP CAP :
knitted woolen Jeep cap
Jeep cap
a soft stocking-cap, knitted of olive drab (OD) wool with a plastic bill sewn into a permanent cuff folded at the bottom; being the Army version of a WATCH CAP, suitable for wearing under a helmet during cold weather. The name of this cap, in common with the term JEEP for the vehicle, is a homophone of "GP", representing 'general purpose'. Its official nomenclature is: cap, wool, knit M1941. See TROOPER CAP, HEADGEAR. [cf: balaclava, coif, pileus/pîlos, calotte, skullcap]

JERK :
see DUD, SHIT MAGNET, ASSHOLE BUDDY, FUCK-UP, PUKE, LOOSE CANNON, YARDBIRD, MAGGOT, TURD, SMACK, ZOMBIE, DOUCHE BAG, FIELD REJECT. [nb: "The popularity of an idea doesn't make it right, nor the unpopularity of a man make him wrong."; "For the most part, unanimity signifies either cowardice or thoughtlessness -- mankind is too contentious to be otherwise agreeable."; "A leader must learn to separate personalities from what's substantive -- not just because it's a good policy to properly employ every member of your command, but because someone who 'rubs you the wrong way' may have a good idea or valid point, which you won't discover if you shut them down out of irritation or frustration." paraphrase of Donald H. Rumsfeld]

JERKY :
a homemade or privately purchased food supplement to government issued RATIONS consisting of meat (eg: beef, deer, turkey, etc) that has been cut in strips(ie: French cut) and preserved by dehydration (originally, sun-dried); this Americanism is an alteration of 'charqui' [quechua ch'arki (Spanish)] for jerked meat, which is also called "leather" (eg: fruit leather"). [cf: pemmican / pemican]

JERRV :
(gerve) Joint Explosive ordnance disposal Rapid Response Vehicle, a 12-ton COUGAR truck that's hardened to survive BOMBs and MINEs, designed to transport engineers (CE) out to areas where obstacles need to be cleared, tasked as a clearing lead vehicle for convoys, and also serves as an ambulance. Compare CEV; see ENGR, EOD, MRAP, TRUCK.

JERRY-BUILT :
developed in a haphazard fashion; term used disparagingly of such contrivance to indicate flimsy or shoddy construction. See FIELD EXPEDIENT, BAND-AID, JURY-RIG, PLAN B, WORK-AROUND, AD HOC, LONG-TAIL, LEAST RESISTANCE, CROSS-DECKING, COMMANDEER. [cf: stopgap, makeshift, ad-lib [ad libitum], postfix, make-do, Afro-engineer; nb: "Creativity is doing more with less, while invention is doing something with nothing!"; "We've done so much with so little for so long that soon we'll be able to do everything with nothing instantaneously!"] [ety: although 'jerry-built', meaning cheaply or insubstantially built, has been associated with 'Jericho' (the walls of which Palestinian city came tumbling down) and with a 'jury mast' (a temporary expedient one that's usually shorter), it probably comes from the given personal name of 'Jerry', which occurs in similar phrases denoting inferiority, such as 'jerrymumble' (to tumble about recklessly), 'Jerry Sneak' (a mean skulker or lurker), and 'jerry-shop' (a cheap beer house) ... each of which existed before 'jerry-built' was first recorded in 1869]

JERRY CAN :
nickname for the portable upright container (originally 4.5gal/20.5litre, later 5gal capacity) that was stackable, able to withstand rough handling, and used for temporary storage of water, fuel, and other liquids, which replenishment container was copied from a WWII German design for the Afrika Korps; see PETROL, MOGAS, JUICE, POL, BLIVET, BLADDER, POD, TOP-OFF, DONKEY DICK, REDNECK CREDIT CARD. [ety: 'Jerry' is a nickname for a German, or for Germans collectively]

JESTER :
see FOOL.

JESUS NUT :
main rotor retaining nut; so-called because if it ever came off, only Jesus could help.

JET JOCKEY :
U.S. Air Force aviator's
qualification badge
U.S. Air Force pilot's wings
slang for any PILOT qualified to fly a jet-propelled (FAST MOVER) aircraft, sometimes shortened to "jet jock"; this "knight of the sky" is also called "throttle jockey" or "fighter jock", as distinguished from prop or glider, transport or helicopter PILOTs. See FUF, G-SUIT, SUCK 'n' PUFF, AUGER-IN, PANCAKE, FAG, BIRDMAN, Q-COURSE, GOOD STICK. [nb: a BULLETPROOF pilot's braggadocio is often expressed as "big sky, little bullet"; v: GOLDEN BB, MAGIC BULLET]

JET PROPULSION :
motivation of a body developed by the reactive force from the injection of a high-speed jet of gas; see JATO, RAMJET, PULSEJET, SCRAMJET, MACH, AFTERBURNER, SONIC BOOM, SUPERSONIC, HYPERSONIC. [nb: Jet propulsion is the propulsion of a body by a force developed in reaction to the ejection of a high-speed jet of gas. The four basic parts of a jet engine are the compressor, turbine, combustion chamber, and propelling nozzles. Air is compressed, then led through chambers where its volume is increased by the heat of fuel combustion. On emergence it spins the compression rotors, which in turn act on the incoming air. In the combustion chamber of a jet propulsion engine, the combustion of a fuel mixture generates expanding gases, which escape through an orifice to form the jet. Newton's third law of motion requires that the force that causes the high-speed motion of the jet of gas have a reaction force that is equal in magnitude and oppositely directed to push on the jet propulsion engine. Hence the term "reaction motor" is often applied to jet-propulsion engines. The thermal jet engine operates with a continuous blast, but intermittent duct jet propulsion proceeds by a series of pulses, or intermittent explosions. The ramjet, or "continuous duct", engine relies on its own forward motion to compress the air that enters it. Although highly efficient, it is designed to operate only after high speed has been attained through the use of some other power source, typically a rocket. The scramjet, or supersonic-combustion ramjet, engine is designed to operate at hypersonic speed, using hydrogen for fuel; in theory, a scramjet-propelled craft could achieve orbital speed, with an efficiency three times that of liquid- or solid-fuel rockets. In addition, without the need to carry oxygen, an air-breathing, scramjet-powered vehicle can carry a greater payload than a rocket-powered one. There are various thrust-augmentation methods that can be used to increase the effective driving force of jet engines: the afterburner, water-injection, and air bleed-off methods. An afterburner uses the exhaust gases from the engine for additional combustion, with resulting higher compression; however, it consumes large amounts of fuel. Injection of water into the air-compressor inlet also increases the thrust, but can be used only at take-off because of the high water consumption. Air bleed-off, sometimes called the "fan augmentation method", also makes more efficient use of air otherwise wasted. The first reaction engine, the aeolipile (a ball that rotated as a reaction to escaping steam), was constructed by the inventor Heron (or Hero) of Alexandria. Developments through the centuries have resulted in two general types of reaction machines, the true rocket and the airstream engine, commonly known as the jet engine. Unlike a jet engine, a rocket engine carries with it chemicals that enable it to burn its fuel without drawing air from an outside source. Thus a rocket can operate in outer space, where there is no atmosphere. Fritz von Opel, a German automobile manufacturer, made the first flight entirely by rocket power in 1939. The American R.H. Goddard did much of the important pioneer work in modern rocket development. The second category of reaction motor, the jet engine, is a development of the late 18th-century gas turbine engines, which directed combustion gases against the blades of a turbine wheel. Not until 1908 was it suggested that an aircraft could be driven by jet propulsion. René Lorin, a French engineer, proposed using a reciprocating engine to compress air, mix it with fuel, and thus propel the aircraft by the pulses of hot gas produced by combustion of the mixture. Henri Coanda, a Romanian engineer, experimented with a reaction-powered aircraft in 1910, and observed the phenomenon now known as the "Coanda effect". In 1939 the English engineer, Frank Whittle, developed a jet engine that powered a full-sized aircraft, and a year later, Secundo Campini in Italy, flew for 10 minutes using a thermal jet engine. Jet-propelled aircraft have replaced propeller-driven types in all but short-range commercial applications; turboprop planes, in which a propeller is turned by a turbine engine, are used for short-range flights. The SR-71 Blackbird, a U.S. jet SPYPLANE, holds the current speed record of 2,193.17 mph for a piloted air-breathing airplane, but NASA's experimental scramjet-powered pilotless X-43A has bested this, almost reaching Mach 7 (about 5,000 mph) and Mach 10 (about 6,800 mph) in brief test flights in 2004. The Australian-led HyShot Flight Program successfully tested a British-designed scramjet engine in 2006. (The Columbia Encyclopedia Sixth Edition ©2007 Columbia University Press)]

JETSAM :
goods or supplies that are deliberately cast overboard from a vessel so as to lighten or stabilize it in an emergency, as derived from "jettison"; such cargo typically sink where castaway, but may be later washed ashore. See LAGAN; compare FLOTSAM, WAVESON, CASTOFF, DODO.

JETSTAR :
Lockheed C-140 aircraft.

JETTISON :
to cast goods, supplies, or other cargo from an aircraft or vessel so as to lighten or stabilize it during an emergency; see JETSAM.

JEWISH CALENDAR :
see HEBREW CALENDAR.

JEWISH WAVE :
a politically-incorrect reference to a person craning his neck, cocking his ears, and gazing as if his eyes were on stalks in an effort to spy on or pry into another's activities or affairs; the physical contortions performed in as socially acceptable a manner as possible so as to gain access or to pay undue attention to another's business, which nosy intrusiveness is "warranted" by their sincere concern and ardent curiosity; also known as a "Yiddish wave" or "Jew's salute". Compare ITALIAN SALUTE, POLISH SALUTE; see HOT DESKING, TAP / WIRETAP, KILROY, BIG BROTHER. [v: snoop / snooper, meddle / meddler, busybody, gossipmonger, eavesdrop / eavesdropper, hearken / harken, periscope] [v: mishn zikh, shlatten shammes, altekaker, yakhne, yenta / yente / yentl]

JGS :
the Vietnamese Joint General Staff, being comparable to JCS. [nb: because the French had excluded the Vietnamese from the higher staff positions, MAAG (and later MACV) was responsible for reorganizing the structure of the Vietnamese military (to be compatible with American units) and teaching integrated administration and plans to senior Vietnamese officers, but unlike South Korea, there was not enough time for these leaders to garner extensive experience before political failure disrupted their progress]

JIAO :
a monetary unit of currency in the People's Republic of China (PRC) equal to one-tenth part of the YUAN, or a "dime"; and further subdivided into tenth parts which are called FEN, being the equivalent of a "penny". See RENMINBI, TAEL, SYCEE, LEGAL TENDER.

JIC :
Joint Intelligence Center; compare NIC.

JIEDDO :
(gee-doe) Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization; originally established as an Army task force in 2003, then upgraded to interservice defense agency status in 2006, with the mandate to develop and coordinate counter-IED doctrine and tactics. JIEDDO serves as a coordinator and clearinghouse on IED practices and effects, including types of injuries (IEDs generate a ratio of 9 WIA for each KIA). This agency is funded for research and acquisition of interrupter, disrupter, jammer, and remote detonator equipment. JIEDDO conducts defensive operations to detect IED emplacements, and offensive operations to interdict the manufacture, transport, and installation of IEDs.

JIFF / JIFFY :
a very short time, being a mere moment or instant; allegedly derived from the hundredth part of a second [centisecond (cs)]; lately used in computer operating systems to designate the interval between timer interrupts, variously ranging from one to ten milliseconds. Compare SHAKE; see ASAP, PDQ, CHOGI, CHOP CHOP, RIKI TIK, FORTHWITH, STAT, ZORCH, TIME. [cf: instant, sec(ond), moment, half a mo(ment), two shakes of a lamb's tail, two ticks, in the blink of an eye] [nb: in the VAX/VMS operating system, the parameter 'timepromptwait' was specified in microfortnights (1.2096 seconds); the 'nanocentury' (3.155 seconds) is a computing interval devised by IBM in 1969 as the limit of time a user should be expected to wait for a processing response]

JIGGER :
an informal placeholder term used to identify an article, object, tool, part, gadget, device, contrivance, mechanism, technique, or process whose proper name is unknown or forgotten; including doojigger / do-jigger, doojiggy, dingus, gismo / gizmo, doohickey, thingy / thingee, thingamajig / thingumajig, thingamabob / thingumabob, whatsis / whatsit, whachamacallit / whatchamacallit, whuddayacallit / whudyacallit, what-do-you-call-it, what-you-may-call-it, doodad / do-dad, widget. [v: doover in Australia and New Zealand] Also, any of various mechanical devices, including templates. Also, a measure of one fluid ounce [1/16th pt (29.573ml)], as used in cocktail recipes; or a small shot glass holding this amount. Also, a small parasitic FLEA, which is also called "chigger" or "chigoe"; see COOTIE, GRAYBACK, CRAB, BEDBUG, COMFORT STATION. Also, the six-legged larva of a mite (trombiculidae) that's parasitic on humans and other vertebrates, sucking blood and causing severe itching and acting as a vector for scrub typhus and other infectious diseases; also called "harvest mite" or "redbug". Also, to alter or manipulate something, especially for illegal or unethical purposes.

JINGHPAW / JINGPO :
see JINGPAW RANGERS.

JINGLE TRUCK :
slang for a commercial vehicle of broad description and ingenious configuration that's used in itinerant sales or trade; based upon its somewhat garish and noisy appearance in the most remote areas from the Near East to the Far East, irrespective of ethnic, religious, or political divisions. These tradesmen, often multilingual, doggedly ply their goods and products wherever their decrepit or ramshackle trucks can roll, and are an excellent source of local news ... which can authenticate military intelligence (MI) when interlarded. JINGLE TRUCKs, also known as a "jingly truck" or "jewelry truck", are sometimes independently contracted to haul cargo for delivery on behalf of foreign operations. This designation, probably based upon their clinking or tinkling sound, originated during the period of British colonialism, and has since been adopted by other MIL-PERS (especially ADVISORs and SPECIAL OPERATIONS types) serving throughout this vast region. American troops serving in the SANDBOX have nominated the JINGLE TRUCK for various distinctions, including "State Animal of Afghanistan" and "Official Flower of Iraq". See HACK, RICE-BURNER, TRUCK. [v: chariot, hansom, drag, hackney, jitney, jingle, gharry, fiacre, tonga, trap, gig, dogcart, calash, growler, runabout, palanquin/palankeen, palki/palkee, jiao, gama, sedan chair, hand truck, pushcart, tug-truck, pull-truck]

JINGPAW RANGERS :
Jingpaw Rangers shoulder
patch
Jingpaw Rangers
Kachin Rangers shoulder patch
Kachin Rangers
a GUERRILLA force of Jinghpaw / Kachin tribesmen that was organized, trained and led on raids into Burma from March 1942 to July 1945 by Detachment 101, Office of Strategic Services (OSS); the Jinghpaw / Jingpo or Kachin / Cachin people identify themselves as "Jinghpaw Wunpawng", living in a region that spans northern Burma, northeastern India, and southwestern China, which is commonly known as the "Land of Jades and Gold". Having migrated from the Tibetan plateau, they're widely known for their disciplined fighting and jungle survival skills, the Kachin people exhibit excellent craftsmanship and herbal healing; their traditionally animistic beliefs and complex clan inter-relations are being displaced in the post-WWII era by Christian values. See CHINDIT, RANGER. [nb: alternative names include Jinghpaw, Jingpo, Jingpho, Singpho, Singfo, Chingpaw; subgroups include Burman / Bamar, Nung / Rawang, Lisu, Zaiwa / Tsaiva, Atsi / Azi, Lechi, Lashi / Lachik, Lawngwaw, Maru, Gauri, Nagas, Maingtha, Hpon, Theinbaw, and Khamti / Shan]

JINGPO / JINGHPAW :
see JINGPAW RANGERS.

JINK :
Air Force term for turning an aircraft hard in various directions so as to avoid enemy fire, evade apprehension, or escape detection; see BANK, YANK 'n' BANK, ATTITUDE ADJUSTMENT, ACM, FUR BALL, DOGFIGHT, AEROBATICS.

JINX :
someone or something that attracts or causes bad luck or ill will, enmity or malevolence, acrimony or animosity; a Jonah that inspires infelicity or a hex that creates misfortune. See SHIT MAGNET, MOJO, VOODOO, HOODOO, CHARMS, ABRACADABRA, PASSWORD, ANTHROPOMORPHISM, MASCOT, JOSS STICK, TIGER BALM. [ety: a bird ('jynx wryneck') used in divination and magic]

JITTERBUG :
to be "on the move" or "on the jump" in an erratic series of rushes or leaps, so-called after the strenuously acrobatic jazz dance; see ON THE BOUNCE, HOPSCOTCH, JUMP-START, FIRE 'n' MANEUVER, LEAP FROG, CHECKERBOARD, BUTTERFLY, CLOVERLEAF, BUTTONHOOK, ZIGZAG, DASH, OP TEMPO. Also, slang for someone who's anxious or apprehensive, excited or agitated, skittish or flinchy; also called "jumping bean"; see NERVOUS IN THE SERVICE, HAPPY FEET; compare HANG LOOSE.

JLIST :
(jay-list) Joint service Lightweight Integrated Suit Technology; see JSLIST.

JJ DID TIE BUCKLE :
an acronym serving as an aide-memoire for learning and practicing the fourteen leadership (LDR) traits: Justice, Judgement, Decisiveness, Initiative, Dependability, Tact, Integrity, Endurance, Bearing, Unselfishness, Courage, Knowledge, Loyalty, and Enthusiasm.

JMUA :
U.S. Army Joint Meritorious Unit
Award
JMUA
(forthcoming); see MUC, OUA, UNIT CITATION, GONG.

JOC :
Joint Operations Center; see TOC, CTOC, JDOC, CMOC, OPN.

JOCKSTRAP MEDAL :
among intelligence agents (eg: CIC, MI, DIA, CIA, etc), a decoration that's been covertly presented in a closed ceremony for distinguished conduct or meritorious performance during a classified operation; also called a "jockstrap award", this decoration may not be openly worn on the recipient's uniform as long as the details of the operation remain classified, but its existence is noted in the recipient's (classified) personnel file as a factor to be considered during promotion ... such restricted awards are so called because the only place that they can be worn is on the inside of the jockstrap! Also, by association among conventional servicemembers, an automatic award presented to every member of the "team" just for suiting up and going along with the game, hence the sportsmanship allusion to teamwork as represented by the 'jockstrap'. See I WAS THERE, BTDT, PAY DUES, CAMPAIGN MEDAL, UNIT CITATION, IMPACT AWARD, BADGE OF COURAGE, FRUIT SALAD, GONG, TRASH.

JODHPUR :
(jod-fer) an above-the-ankle demiboot that closed with a strap that buckled on the outside of the wearer's foot, as worn before WWII with LEGGINGs or PUTTEEs, and worn afterward by aircrew and aircraft ground maintenance personnel; also called chukka (from polo) or bootee, BOONDOCKERS or "fruit boots"; compare BUSKINS, TANKER BOOTS, see FOOTWEAR. Also, pantaloons or riding breeches that are cut full around the hips and thighs for ease of movement, then tapering from the knee to a close fit on the lower leg; as derived from the polo uniform worn in Jodhpur India; compare ZOOT SUIT.

JODY :
archetypal DRAFT DODGER and "lounge lizard" who steals the girlfriend left at home. If the Nice Girl succumbs and sends a disloyal "Dear John" letter, then she becomes a Bad Girl, who's commonly known as "Susie Rottencrotch" or "Mary Meatgrinder". Conversely, service women betrayed by JODY, receive a "Dear Jane" letter. A "kiss-off" from a serviceman to a forlorn civilian can use the same references (eg: GI JODY sends a Dear Jane to Miss Lonely Hearts). See SUGAR REPORT, MAIL CALL. Also, the short form of JODY CALL; so named due to their preoccupation with unmilitary deeds and civilian affairs. [cf: the rabbit-like character called "Cuthbert" invented by Poy, the cartoonist for the "Evening News", to represent all the eligible DRAFT DODGERs avoiding combat during WWI with sinecures and deferments; not to be confused with Saint Cuthbert]

JODY CALL :
rhythmic chants or rhyming songs intended to coordinate marching tempo, sometimes shortened to JODY; probably derived from labor songs that paced the work and maintained the processing order. These ballads, classified as "occupational folk songs", are preoccupied with unmilitary deeds and civilian affairs, sharing the common miseries of ordinary people, along with blues and country lay, featuring the archetypal JODY as villain or rake, who typically wins the soldier's pay and possessions, seduces the serviceman's wife and dog! See CADENCE, HEP, CHANTEY, HOISE, BY THE NUMBERS, GUNG-HO, HEAVE-HO, BEATERS 'n' BLEATERS, TOOTER. [nb: some revisionists, by ignoring the extensive history of martial music and work songs going back to ancient China and early Rome, are "crediting" segregated Negro troops with the 'invention' of CADENCE calls for the improvement of morale during training in WWII, specifically an impromptu "Sound Off" CADENCE call initiated by PVT Willie Duckworth while marching in the Provisional Training Center of Fort Slocum, New York, in May 1944, and later identified as the "Duckworth Chant" in reformed folklore. It's another insidious myth and pernicious lie perpetrated upon the gullible by self-anointed elitists! The similarity of JODY to every carpetbagger and scalawag argues demonstrably for a 19th century development, as does the word 'cadence' in early Army songs ("count off the cadence loud and strong"), but even more is the persistence of sea chanteys by sailors laboring at common tasks.] [cf: ballad, chanson, lay, air, tune, ditty, carol]

JOE :
slang for military coffee, also known as mud, sludge, washy, java, mocha, espresso, brew, black water, brown blood, boiler acid, battery acid, and nectar of the gods; see GI JOE. Also, slang for any uniformed MIL-PERS serving overseas, especially GRUNTs and other GROUND POUNDERs, as a truncation of GI JOE since the WWII-era; typically expressed as: "Hey Joe, you souvenir me candy bar!".

JOG :
also known as 'jog trot'; see TRUSCOTT TROT, DOGTROT, AIRBORNE SHUFFLE, MARATHON, GO-FASTERS.

JOHNNY-GUN / JOHNNY GUN :
informal reference to the Johnson model M-1941 light machinegun (LMG), being a .30cal SMALL ARM fed by 20-round magazines with a front blade sight and a rear folding aperture sight; although the Johnson LMG was the only new machinegun design introduced during WWII, it was only used to a limited degree during the war; compare BAR, LEWIS GUN, TOMMY-GUN.

JOHN WAYNE :
attributive criticism for anyone wearing an unbuckled HELMET (STEEL POT, K-POT) in imitation of this movie star (Marion Michael Morrison) where his chin straps are dangling or hanging loose in numerous war film roles; regulations (as well as common sense safety) require them to be fastened, either up (around the helmet) or down (around the head) for proper wear and noise discipline. Also, an attribution for someone who is too reckless or individualistic, someone who breaks the rules of procedure instead of following the guidelines; not a self-disciplined team player; a rogue or COWBOY, HOT DOG or HOT-SHOT. Also, slang for the P-38 (or later P-51) C-RATION can opener; compare CHURCH KEY, KFS.

JOHN WAYNE DRIVING SCHOOL :
sardonic reference to the process of teaching inexperienced trainees the fine art of tactical driving in rough terrain, which usually results in the vehicle getting banged up ... and the instructor growing exponentially older with each new student. See FIREBALLING, ZIGZAG, BRODIE, STREET SURFING, HYDROPLANE, BLOOD ALLEY, SHELL GAME, JOYRIDE, WHEEL JOCKEY.

JOHN WAYNE HIGH SCHOOL :
sardonic reference to the SPECIAL FORCES and SPECIAL OPERATIONS training center at Fort Bragg; also known as "John Wayne School of Dirty Tricks". See SWS, SWC&S, SFTG, SFQC, SOTC, ROBIN SAGE, GABRIEL, BRONZE BRUCE, ELECTRIC BUTTERKNIFE, GREEN BERET, BLANKET HEAD, SNEAKY PETE, SNAKE-EATER, SF; compare MSOS. [v: Siwash ("At Good Old Siwash" by George Helgeson Fitch (1911)]

JOHN WAYNE RIFLE :
M-1911A1 .45cal
pistol
M-1911A1 .45cal pistol
sarcastic reference to the government model M-1911/M-1911A1 .45cal (11.25mm) PISTOL, fired for qualification on a 25-yard shooting range, but was invariably accurate for hundreds of meters in the hands of Hollywood HEROs! ... like John "Duke" Wayne (Marion Michael Morrison). One of the most reliable handguns ever issued to MIL-PERS, with excellent lethality, this semiautomatic was designed by John Moses Browning and served in all conditions around the world ... until needlessly replaced in 1990 by the M-9 sidearm. The M-1911A1 remains the preferred sidearm for SFers and Marines. See CALIBER, HARDBALL, DUMDUM, UP-GUN, PISTOL. [nb: a slang term for the fully metal jacketed .45cal PISTOL and submachinegun (SMG) ammunition is 'pumpkin ball' ("punkin ball"), so-called due to its color and size]

JOINT :
purportedly, the military uses the term "joint" (to join) to indicate two or more elements from the same service or nation, and the term "combined" (by twos) to indicate two or more interservice or international elements, hence a "joint action" might involve the Army and Navy, while a "combined action" might involve the US and UK; additionally, the term "composite" (put together) indicates a compound of disparate elements forming a whole, while the term "component" (put together) indicates constituent elements of a greater whole. The term "joint", expressive of interservice, reflects an expansion of the "combined arms" concept, once limited to each service branch, into a unified command structure. See THINK PURPLE, JOC, JTF, USJFCOM, CJSOTF-AP, JSOTF, JSOC, USSOC, SPECIAL OPERATIONS.

JOINT ARMY/NAVY PHONETIC ALPHABET :
also known as the International Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabet; see PHONETIC ALPHABET. [v: Alphabet Codes & Signal Flags]

JOINT ENDEAVOR :
a combined armor (1st Arm Div) and airborne (82nd Abn Div) ground operation in December 1995 to secure occupied sectors and travel routes (such as bridging the Sava River) so a cease-fire could be imposed for the safe administration of the aid/relief mission (PROVIDE PROMISE) in Bosnia and Herzegovina; this NATO-led Implementation Force (IFOR) is also known as Task Force Eagle. The mission was to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement, enforce the cease-fire, supervise the marking of boundaries and the zone of separation between the former warring factions, enforce the withdrawal of the combatants to their compounds, and ensure the movement of heavy weapons to storage sites. NATO and UN peacekeeping forces, severely restricted by RULES OF ENGAGEMENT (ROE), have attempted to intercede in the numerous instances of "ethnic cleansing" ATROCITYs by imposing a cease-fire. Operation JOINT GUARD, a smaller NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR), was tasked with the mission of deterring renewed hostilities in Dec 1996. [nb: Bosnia (1995): 12 battle deaths] [nb: "balkanization" is a toponym for relentlessly quarrelsome subdivisions] [nb: it has been said that Yugoslavia has one people, two alphabets, three religions, four languages, five nationalities, and six republics!]

JOINT FORGE :
operation in Bosnia, Herzegovina, Croatia, and the Adriatic Sea from 21 June 1998; renamed from operation JOINT GUARD; see JOINT ENDEAVOR, ALLIED FORCE, PROVIDE PROMISE.

JOINT GUARD :
operation in Bosnia, Herzegovina, Croatia, and the Adriatic Sea from 20 Dec 1996 to 20 Jun 2008; derived from operation JOINT ENDEAVOR, then transferred to operation JOINT FORGE on 20 June 1998; see ALLIED FORCE, PROVIDE PROMISE.

JOINT GUARDIAN :
operational name of the NATO campaign in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Kosovo (11 Jun 1999 - 31 Dec 2013), being an extension of Task Force Falcon with a United Nations mandate to separate warring factions, oversee the withdrawal of Serb forces, and interdict the flow of arms to insurgents.[nb: Kosovo was declared independent on 17 February 2008 by the Kosovo Assembly]

JOKER :
in Naval aviation, a fuel level that's critically low, lower than BINGO; see ENDURANCE, DROP-TANK, POD, DROGUE, TANKER, POINT OF NO RETURN. Also, a jester or clown; see FOOL.

JOLLY GREEN GIANT :
Jolly Green Giant helicopter
patch
Jolly Green Giant
refers to either the heavily armed USAF AC-47 twin-engined fixed-wing gunship airplane, or the USAF HH-53 / HH-3 Sikorsky single-rotor heavy cargo helicopter used for transport and rescue. See DAKOTA, SMOKY BEAR, SEA STALLION, SUPER SEA STALLION, SANDY, CHOPPER, BIRD.

JOLLY ROGER :
a flag showing a skull with crossed bones on a black field that originated as the "jolie rouge", a plain red flag; see RED FLAG, BLACK FLAG, PLAY CHARLEMAGNE, LAST STAND; compare WHITE FLAG, YELLOW JACK, FALSE FLAG, STRIKE THE FLAG, QUARTER. [v: Flag Terms]

JONAH :
see JINX, SHIT MAGNET, MOJO, VOODOO, HOODOO, ABRACADABRA, PASSWORD.

JOOD :
Junior Officer Of the Deck, who is second to the Officer Of the Deck (OOD); compare SOPA.

JOPE :
Joint Operation and Planning Exercise. [nb: purportedly, the military uses the term "joint" (to join) to indicate two or more elements from the same service or nation, and the term "combined" (by twos) to indicate two or more interservice or international elements, hence a "joint action" might involve the Army and Navy, while a "combined action" might involve the US and UK; additionally, the term "composite" (put together) indicates a compound of disparate elements forming a whole, while the term "component" (put together) indicates constituent elements of a greater whole]

JOSS :
usually understood as fate, destiny, fortune, or luck; it is actually pidgin Chinese for "god", represented as a cult image or idol that's worshipped in a TEMPLE (JOSS HOUSE) and propitiated by burning incense (JOSS STICK) and donating SPIRIT MONEY or CASH.

JOSS HOUSE :
a Chinese temple for idol worship; see WAT, ANGKOR WAT, NHA THO, JOSS STICK, FOO DOG. [v: ashram, synagogue, church, chapel, mosque, ziggurat, house of God, house of prayer, house of worship]

JOSS STICK :
a thin stick of dried fragrant paste, burned as propitiative incense before a cult image or idol (joss). Usually understood as fate, destiny, fortune, or luck; JOSS is actually pidgin Chinese for "god", as in JOSS HOUSE. See TIGER BALM, ANTHROPOMORPHISM, MASCOT, FOO DOG, BILLIKEN, JINX, SHIT MAGNET, MOJO, VOODOO, HOODOO, ABRACADABRA, PASSWORD; compare NHA THO, WAT, ANGKOR WAT. [nb: "Joss-sticks: small sticks burned by the Chinese in their pagan tomfoolery, in imitation of certain sacred rites of our holy religion." by Ambrose Gwinnett Bierce]

JOURNAL :
formally classified as a subscription BULLETIN; being a periodical published by the military for professional development, including: "Military Review", "Proceedings", "Marines", "Soldier", "All Hands", "Parameters", etc. Compare YANK, STARS AND STRIPES, OVERSEXED WEEKLY, REPORT, MR, WHITE PAPER. [nb: "Army Times", "Navy Times", "Air Force Times", "Marine Gazette", "Early Bird Brief", "Daily News Roundup", and other service-oriented newspapers are proprietary publications, just as "Army", "Leatherneck", "Sea Power", "Air Power", "National Guard", "Legion", "VFW", and other quasi-military magazines are proprietary publications of their respective professional or veteran associations, which are neither endorsed nor sponsored by the military] [aka: rag, fish wrap, dead tree, funny papers, newsletter, house organ, gazette, tabloid, pauper press, penny dreadful, zine] [nb: when Gaius Julius Caesar was consul of Rome in 59BC, he directed messengers to inscribe the "Daily Actions" of the senate and government onto walls, in the fashion of graffiti, thus publishing the first "newspaper"] [nb: during the 1863 siege of Vicksburg in the American Civil War, local newspapers were printed on the plain side of wallpaper] Also, a log or register, book of days or daybook account recording the daily [der: Latin daily (diurnalis), French day (jour)] affairs and activities of a unit; see WAR DIARY, compare MORNING REPORT. [nb: the military prohibits the keeping of a personal diary for reasons of security in denying the enemy opportunities for gathering INTEL from captured or recovered documents, including personal letters (SUGAR REPORT); however, this practical measure is widely disregarded and generally disobeyed]

JOURNALIST :
see PIO, PAO, FRUIT FLY, WAR CORRESPONDENT, FOURTH ESTATE, SHUTTERBUG, GAG ORDER, OPSEC, BLACKOUT, CENSORSHIP, RED INK, DISINFORMATION, PROPAGANDA, BIG LIE, ECHO CHAMBER, DIRTY LAUNDRY, SPIN, FAKE NEWS, RUMOR. [v: noise, pickthank, newsmonger, rumormonger, gossip, gossipmonger, scandalmonger, busybody, yenta, quidnunc, chinwagger, chin musician, schmoozer, blabbermouth, flibbertigibbet, tittle-tattler, tattler, tattletale, talebearer, bottom-feeder] [nb: "Journalists are the semi-literate cretins hired to fill the spaces between the advertisements." by Winston L.S. Churchill; "If ever you see a man put his fingers in his ears and whistle 'Dixie' to keep from hearing the truth, you may assume he's a fool; but if he puts his fingers in your ears and starts whistling, then you know you're dealing with a journalist." by Andrew Klavan; "I hate newspapermen. They come into camp and pick up their camp rumors and print them as facts. I regard them as spies, which, in truth, they are." by William Tecumseh Sherman; "If I had my choice I would kill every reporter in the world, but I am sure we would be getting reports from Hell before breakfast." by William Tecumseh Sherman; "The man who reads nothing at all is better educated than the man who reads nothing but newspapers." by Thomas Jefferson; "If you don't read the newspaper, you're uninformed; but if you do read it, you're misinformed." attributed to Mark Twain (Samuel Langhorne Clemens); "But what is the difference between literature and journalism? ... Journalism is unreadable and literature is not read." by Oscar Wilde (Fingal O'Flahertie Wills); "I think I understand what military fame is; to be killed on the field of battle and have your name misspelled in the newspapers." by William Tecumseh Sherman]

JOUST :
see MOCK-COMBAT, DRY RUN, EXERCISE, THE PLAN, FIELD EXPEDIENT, PARTY LINE, BOX HEAD, PRIMROSE PATH, MILITARY MIND, TOE THE LINE, RINK, WAR GAMES, UMPIRE, REFEREE, TRAIN HARD - FIGHT EASY, PLAY THE GAME, SNAKE PIT, DUEL, ORDEAL, FLOWER WAR. [nb: although ancient Greek and Roman cavalrymen approached their opponents from the left so as to favor the weapon held in their right hand, tournament jousting by right-handed lancers is the basis for driving vehicles on the left side of the roadway (eg: Japan, Thailand, Nepal, Bhutan, Macao, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, Kenya, South Africa, Hong Kong, Virgin Islands, Bermuda, Jamaica, Bahamas, Grenada, Barbados, Australia, New Zealand, Falkland Islands, England, Ireland, Isle of Man, Guernsey, Jersey, Malta, Cyprus, and other British influenced countries ... except Gibraltar)] [nb: on the advice of a geomancer in 1970, Burma changed from driving on the left side of the roadway to driving on the right] [nb: Okinawa, a Japanese prefecture under American military occupation since 24 June 1945, accommodated U.S. administration by driving on the right side of the roadway until after sovereignty was restored in 1972, then reverted to left side 'rules of the road' in common with other Japanese regions on 30 July 1978 ... an occasion known locally as "730"]

JOY :
confirmed sighting, link, or contact by aircraft PILOT or WSO, being the same as AFFIRM or success; conversely, "No Joy" is an expression of failure, being the opposite of TALLY-HO.

JOYRIDE :
an Americanism for operating a vehicle in a reckless or irresponsible manner, often for pleasure or excitement, as when unauthorized; see FIREBALLING, ZIGZAG, BRODIE, STREET SURFING, HYDROPLANE, BLOOD ALLEY, BORING HOLES IN THE SKY, JOHN WAYNE DRIVING SCHOOL.

JOYSTICK :
informal term for a control or steering lever (CONTROL STICK), as for maneuvering and manipulating an airplane or tank, computer or conveyance; also called "stick" or "beer-lever"; see DEAD STICK, VOLPLANE, HOTAS. [nb: where the ship's steering wheel has been replaced by JOYSTICKs for controlling propulsion pods and thrusters, the HELM is called an "integrated bridge system workstation"] Also, slang for penis, phallus, PRICK / CU, SHORT ARM, STICK, SPAR, YARDARM, HOT DOG, HOSE, BAYONET, BIRD, DIPPER, POGY BAIT, POGUE, and the like; compare LITTLE PRICK, DEAD-SOLDIER, ONIONS. [nb: 'hooey', allegedly an Americanism used as an interjection for nonsense or tripe, is actually a corruption of the Russian vulgarity ("khuy") for penis, and is commonly used alone (eg: dick, dickhead, dick-wad) or in phrases (eg: dumber than dick; he doesn't know dick; don't dick around; don't stir your tea with your dick)] [cf: migration of "putz" from shine through ornament to penis and dolt; as sexual lure] [v: lucky stiff]

JP :
jet petroleum, such as "JP-4", being a liquid fuel for jet aircraft, the chief ingredient of which is kerosene; see POL, PETROL, AVGAS, JUICE, TOP-OFF, HOT-FUELING, FUEL LADDER. Also, the abbreviation for Joint Pacific.

JPAC :
U.S. Joint Prisoner of war/missing in action Accounting Command, being the interservice authority responsible for battlefield archeology, including the identification and recovery of the physical remains of American servicemembers lost in the line of duty; formed by combining the U.S. Army Central Identification Laboratory Hawaii (CILHI) and the Joint Task Force - Full Accounting (JTF-FA) in 2003. The unofficial motto ("Not to be Forgotten") is displayed with the names of the MIAs in the JPAC lobby along with their official motto: "Until They Are Home". See CIL, JPRA, RECOVERY, POW, MIA, LAID BY THE WALL, BODY-SNATCHER, GRAVES REGISTRATION, MORTUARY AFFAIRS.

JPADS :
(jay-pads) Joint Precision AirDrop System, being a computer-controlled parachute delivery method used to supply or resupply troops in the field with rations, fuel, ammunition, and other vital necessities. After exiting a cargo plane flying as high as 25,000 feet above the ground (AGL), the JPADS wing-shaped parachute self-maneuvers using Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates to a drop zone (DZ) as small as 100 meters, making aerial delivery of a 2000 pound PAYLOAD securely. A 10,000# cargo JPADS is also available. Compare LAPES, LOW-LEVEL EVACUATION DROP; see HEAVY DROP, AIRDROP.

JP DRAIN :
(Jackson-Pratt) see CLOSED DRAINAGE SYSTEM.

JPRA :
Joint Personnel Recovery Agency; see BLOOD CHIT, SAFE, JSARC, CSAR, SAR, RCC, RECOVERY.

JPRC :
Joint Personnel Recovery Center, being the cover designation for the interservice BRIGHT LIGHT project; in the post-Vietnam era, it was succeeded by the Joint Personnel Recovery Agency (JPRA). See POW, SON TAY, BLOOD CHIT, SAFE, compare SNATCH, TONGUE, PACKAGE, JSARC, CSAR, SAR, RCC, RECOVERY.

JRATA :
Joint Research And Test Activity

JRC :
Joint Reconnaissance Center

JROTC :
Junior Reserve Officer's Training Corps, being a program sponsored by the Department of Defense (DoD) that's designed to instill good character traits, to inspire participation in community service, and to instruct adolescents in military history and lore by the appointment of VETERANs and RETIREEs as supervisory administrators in these extracurricular activities at select secondary schools; this PARAMILITARY program is similar to Scouts and 4-H Clubs in advocating traditional values and responsible citizenship. Compare ROTC. [nb: Operation Future Challenge, a six-week basic training summer camp program of instruction for Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (JROTC) participants, has been sponsored by the 100th Infantry Division at Fort Knox since 1997] [eg: Army and Navy Academy (Carlsbad, CA), Benedictine Military School (Savannah, GA), Camden Military Academy (Camden, SC), Chamberlain-Hunt Academy (Port Gibson, MS), Culver Military Academy (Culver, IN), Delaware Military Academy (Wilmington, DE), Fishburne Military School (Waynesboro, VA), Forestville Military Academy (Forestville, MD), Francis Marion Military Academy (Ocala, FL), Hargrave Military Academy (Chatham, VA), Howe Military School (Howe, IN), La Salle Institute (Troy, NY), Massanutten Military Academy (Woodstock, VA), New York Military Academy (Cornwall-on-Hudson, NY), New Mexico Military Institute (Roswell, NM), Oak Ridge Military Academy (Oak Ridge, NC), Randolph-Macon Academy (Front Royal, VA), San Marcos Academy (San Marcos, TX), St. Johnís Military School (Salina, KS), St. Johnís Northwestern Military Academy (Delafield, WI)]

JRTC :
Joint Readiness Training Center
JRTC
Joint Readiness Training Center; a live-fire infantry field exercise area for simulated operations coordinated with air and armor support. Originating as a corps maneuver area preparatory to WWII deployment, it was revitalized in 1987 at Fort Chaffee, and relocated to Fort Polk in 1993; battle scenarios range from "hot war" through counterinsurgency to peacekeeping missions, including political and media elements. Compare NTC, RED FLAG; see CPX, FTX, JTFEX, OPFOR, MILES.

JRX :
(jay-ar-ecks) Joint Readiness eXercise; compare JTFEX, JOPE; see EXERCISE. [nb: purportedly, the military uses the term "joint" (to join) to indicate two or more elements from the same service or nation, and the term "combined" (by twos) to indicate two or more interservice or international elements, hence a "joint action" might involve the Army and Navy, while a "combined action" might involve the US and UK; additionally, the term "composite" (put together) indicates a compound of disparate elements forming a whole, while the term "component" (put together) indicates constituent elements of a greater whole]

JSAD :
Joint Strategic Analysis Division at the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS).

JSARC :
Joint Search and Rescue Center; see SAR, JPRC, JPRA, RCC.

JSD :
ARVN Jump Status
Designator
ARVN JSD
Jump Status Designator, being a "winged sword" pocket patch worn by ARVN AIRBORNE personnel and their ADVISORs; as with many elite Vietnamese military symbols, the JSD was probably inspired by a similar French ("metro") device. See PARACHUTE, WINGS, OVAL.

JSLIST :
(jay-list) Joint Service Lightweight Integrated Suit Technology, being a biochemical coverall carried in an accessory bag for field wear during a HAZMAT or CBR incident; see MOPP, CPOG, BUNNY SUIT, MOON SUIT, BLUE SUIT, H-GEAR, GAS MASK.

JSOC :
(jay-sock) Joint Special Operations Command at Pope Air Force Base, organized in 1987, which includes the Navy's Naval Special Warfare Development Group (SEAL Team 6), the Army's 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment - Delta (DELTA FORCE), the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (NIGHT STALKERS), the 75th Ranger Regiment, and the Air Force's 24th Special Tactics Squadron; also known by various nicknames (eg: "Secret Army of Northern Virginia", "Task Force Green", etc), with its manpower level fluctuating according to its mission, including its own intelligence division, reconnaissance aircraft, and dedicated satellites. See SPECIAL OPERATIONS.

JSOTF :
Joint Special Operations Task Force, including Task Force Dagger and Task Force 11 in Afghanistan, under JSOC subsequent to 9/11 2001 TERRORIST attack.

J-STAR :
(forthcoming); platform includes LANTIRN pod, PAVEWAY launch used in TANK PLINKING operations

JSTARS :
(jay-stars) Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System, being a high resolution RADAR integrated with a command and control (CC) suite that's mounted in a modified Boeing 707 airframe.

JTF :
Joint Task Force; see JTTF, JTF-SWA, JTF-FA, TF. [nb: purportedly, the military uses the term "joint" (to join) to indicate two or more elements from the same service or nation, and the term "combined" (by twos) to indicate two or more interservice or international elements, hence a "joint action" might involve the Army and Navy, while a "combined action" might involve the US and UK; additionally, the term "composite" (put together) indicates a compound of disparate elements forming a whole, while the term "component" (put together) indicates constituent elements of a greater whole]

JTFEX :
Joint Task Force EXercise; see JRTC, JOPE, OPFOR, MILES, compare NTC, RED FLAG, GQ, EXERCISE.

JTF-FA :
Joint Task Force - Full Accounting; see CIL, JPAC, JPRA.

JTF-SWA :
Joint Task Force - Southwest Asia, including Headquarters, Joint Task Force - Southwest Asia (HQ, JTF-SWA).

JTIDS :
Joint Target Information Distribution System, being target data that is updated and provided by aerial surveillance (eg: AWACS) to those Navy and/or Air Force aircraft that're tasked with the attack while enroute. Also, Joint Tactical Information Distribution System, being an advanced data sharing system for the military; see INFORMATION WARFARE, NETRUSION.

JTTF :
Joint Terrorism Task Force, being a multi-agency organization (formed in July 2002) consisting of teams of investigators, analysts, linguists, and other specialists from dozens of law enforcement and intelligence agencies, which is designed to combine and coordinate the multiple partner resources of federal, state, and local efforts under the unified direction of the U.S. Department of Justice (DoJ); also known as the National Joint Terrorism Task Force (NJTTF); see JTF, TF.

J-TURN :
see HERBST MANEUVER.

JUDAS GOAT :
a conspicuous bomber, brightly painted like a TRAINER or in DAZZLE camouflage pattern, used during WWII as a guide or pacesetter when establishing a formation after take-off, so as to set the proper course, speed, and altitude on a bombing mission; this frontrunner or trailblazer was needed to initially orient the formation of inexperienced PILOTs and navigators, so as to reduce accidents and mishaps, whereupon this escort would transfer the lead to the mission commander, and return to base (RTB). The JUDAS GOAT, or "judas sheep", was so labeled by the other aircrews for acting like a bellwether in leading the "lambs to slaughter". This phrase, of course, derives from any decoy that's employed to direct others into their place of death. See GOAT, POINT, PATHFINDER, SPEARHEAD, AUTOTOMY, DEFECT, TURNCOAT.

JUDAS HOLE :
see PEEPHOLE.

JUDAS KISS :
see KISS OF DEATH.

JUDGE LYNCH :
the personification of lynch law, which is the summary execution of an accused or convicted person by extralegal process, originally from the DRUMHEAD trial of royalists by patriots during the Revolutionary War, eponymously after either Charles Lynch or William Lynch of Pittsylvania, Virginia. See CIVIL AFFAIRS AGREEMENT, SOFA, PROVOST COURT, DRUMHEAD, MARTIAL LAW, SQUEEZE, THIRD DEGREE, STRANGE FRUIT, CHRISTMAS TREE, PISO'S JUSTICE, ONE SIZE FITS ALL, REGULATOR, VIGILANCE COMMITTEE, WHEN IN ROME. [cf: Isaac Parker as the "Hanging Judge" at Fort Smith Arkansas; v: kangaroo court, honor court, grievance committee, vigilance committee, tribunal, sanhedrim]

JUDGMENT CALL :
the ability to make a wise decision or to form a sensible opinion, especially in matters affecting action; the use of good sense or discernment when interpreting some debatable determination ... being a subjective ruling based upon observation or experience, instead of the objective application of invariable laws. See COMMAND PRESENCE, COMMAND VOICE, EXTRAORDINARY POWERS, OVERSIGHT, SIDE DOOR, LOYALTY UP - LOYALTY DOWN, RESPECT, BEARING, LDR, COMMANDER. [v: commentariat, obiter dictum]

JUDY :
AvnSpeak communicated to ground or airborne controllers by the PILOT or weapons officer (WSO) confirming that a designated target has been acquired visually or electronically, and that the attack is proceeding; the RULES OF ENGAGEMENT (ROE) always require target confirmation before an attack. See TALLY-HO, BOGIE, BANDIT, VISUAL, PRIMROSE PATH, SCRAM, JOY, SMOOGE, SPLASH.

JUGGERNAUT :
any large, overpowering, or destructive force or its implacable object, including anything requiring blind devotion, complete commitment, or cruel sacrifice; as derived from an idol of Vishnu or Krishna ("Jagannath"), the lord of the world, that's annually drawn on a huge cart at Puri in Orissa, India, under whose wheels devotees are said to have thrown themselves to be crushed. See HELL ON WHEELS, BATTLE WAGON, THUNDERBOLT. [nb: "Their idols are like scarecrows in a cucumber field, and they cannot speak; they have to be carried, for they cannot walk. Be not afraid of them, for they cannot do evil; neither is it in them to do good." Jeremiah 10:5 RSV Bible]

JUICE :
slang for electricity or electric power. Also, slang for fuel or petroleum; also called "go juice"; see POL, CHERRY JUICE, PETROL, JP, AVGAS, MOGAS, HOT-FUELING, TOP-OFF, ENDURANCE, BINGO. Also, slang for acceleration or propulsion power; see AFTERBURNER, BUSTER, BLOWER, JATO, PULL PITCH, SCRAMBLE, HAUL-ASS, ASAP, PDQ, STAT, FORTHWITH. Also, slang for influence exerted for personal or illegal purposes, also known as fix, grease, juke, jive, jingo, jazz, jolt, joy; see RABBI, PATRON SAINT, SEA DADDY, LIFER, MILICRAT, RIGHT ARM, CAREER TRACK, RING-KNOCKER, TICKET-PUNCHER, CYA; compare juju, grigri, MOJO. Also, slang for alcoholic beverages, especially home-brewed or illicitly distilled (eg: raisin- or applejack hard cider); see HOOCH, BREW, GROG, IRISH SODA POP, GROUP TIGHTENER, SPLICE THE MAINBRACE, SUNDOWNER, GUSTO, HATCH, MOONSHINE, THE DRINK, TOAST, HOIST, DUTCH COURAGE, WHISKEY WARRIOR, DEAD-SOLDIER, BYOB, CLASS SIX. Also, slang for extorted money or bribe money; compare SLUSH FUND, GOLDEN SHOWER, PORK BARREL, POLITICAL ENGINEERING, BLACK BAG, HONEY POT, CUMSHAW, SOUVENIR, bribe, graft, mordida, payoff, buyoff, payola, bite, kickback, schmear, grease, oil, soap, sop, boodle, hush money, induce/-ment, suborn, buckshee, spiff [v: primage]. Also, slang for usury or vigorish (der: "vygrash" / "vyigrysh"); see KHAKI MAFIA, CARPETBAGGERS. Also, slang for gossip or scandal; see RUMOR, SCUTTLEBUTT, BACK CHANNEL, GOUGE, POOP, GREEN GREASE, HOT-SHIT, FALSE FLAG, DECEPTION, BAYONET, BAMBOO TELEGRAPH. Also, the essence, strength, verve, vigor, or vitality of life, as élan or élan vital. Also, to enliven or excite, as by analogy to natural bodily secretions, such as epinephrine. Also, the natural fluid or liquid extract from a fruit or other plant, as derived from a term for broth, SOUP, sauce; see BUG JUICE, THE DRINK, GI JOE, NUOC, SOLAR STILL, EVAPORATOR, WATER PURIFICATION TABLET; compare CHOW. [nb: a non-concentrate called "Fruit Smack" was marketed by Kool-Ade, the precursor of 'Kool-Aid', in 1927; '-ade' is a suffix meaning fruit drink (eg: lemonade, limeade)]

JUJU :
see MOJO, VOODOO, HOODOO, ABRACADABRA.

JULIAN DATE :
an annual catalogue of ordinal numbers representing each day of the year, sequentially sequenced, as used for vehicle and aircraft logbooks; as derived from calendar reformed by Julius Caesar, and differentiated from conventional Gregorian calendars. See TIME. [nb: The old Julian calendar, in force in Great Britain and her colonies (ie: America) until 1752, overestimated the solar year by 11 minutes 14 seconds each year. Under that calendar the year technically began on 25 March (ie: Lady Day or Annunciation). The New Style Calendar, which went into effect in 1752 (based upon the Gregorian Calendar ordained by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582), adjusted the errors in the old chronology by adding 10 days down through the year 1699 and 11 days beginning with 1700, and leaving 11 days out of the calendar in 1752 (eg: 3 September became 14 September). In addition, the new year once more began on 1 January. Thus, the effect of following New Style usage for all dates prior to 1752 results in an adjusted chronology (eg: the Mayflower Compact, bearing the date of 11 November 1620, was actually signed on 21 November). Under the Julian Calendar (Old Style), George Washington was born 11 February 1731/2, but the Gregorian Calendar lists it as 22 February 1732 (New Style).]

JULIETT :
the word assigned to represent the letter "J" in the international phonetic alphabet; commonly mistaken to be "juliet", and sometimes spelled "juliette"; unless doubled, the final "t" is silent in some languages. At various times in different spelling schemes, it has also been acrophonetically represented as Jig. Compare ALFA, ZERO, WILLIE PETE; see ALPHABET SOUP, PHONETIC ALPHABET. [v: Alphabet Codes & Signal Flags]

JUMP BOOTS :
Corcoran paratrooper boot
jump boot
originating during WWII conversion from BOONDOCKERS with PUTTEEs to logger-style lace-up boots, the AIRBORNE command asked the Corcoran Boot Company to imitate the German JUMP BOOTS. The rough-out BROWN BOOTS issued to GIs and paratroopers were repeatedly refined, such that some soldiers jumped and hiked barefoot during training until improvements could be made to their footwear. By the VIETNAM WAR, they became private purchase boots made of black leather for anyone desirous of better footwear, regardless of jump status. More properly called "paratrooper boots"; their legging was about two inches higher for better leg support, had thicker heels and soles, reinforced heel and toe caps, and a pull-on loop from the Achilles reinforcement. The wear of all-leather boots is no longer authorized after 30 April 2008. See FOOTWEAR, OLD BREED.

JUMP CP :
a temporary command post (CP), established for a brief operation or preparatory to a main command post (CP) displacement, normally including only the personnel and equipment necessary to control the immediate operation. See FOB, OB.

JUMPER :
a loose-fitting, pullover-style, outer jacket with piping and stars on its back-flap, in blue or white, as worn with a neckerchief by sailors; made famous by association with the 'Cracker Jack' confection as part of the U.S. Navy "service dress blue" or "service dress white" uniform. A similar "undress blues" (or "undress whites") without neckerchief, stars, or piping was also worn as a semi-work uniform by sailors. See DUNGAREES, BELLS, AQUAFLAGE, BLUE JACKET, BLOUSE, CLASS-A. Also, slang term for a parachutist; see JUMPIN' JUNKIE, PARATROOPER.

JUMPING BEAN :
slang for someone who's anxious or apprehensive, excited or agitated, skittish or flinchy; also called "jitterbug"; see NERVOUS IN THE SERVICE, compare HANG LOOSE. [nb: despite the apparent connection to the "Mexican jumping bean" (the movement of a moth larva inside the spurge seed impels its action), this phrase is not a referent for Hispanics, parachute qualified or not; in fact, more Hispanics have received the Medal of Honor than any other minority racial group]

JUMPING JACK :
an exercise in which someone starts from a standing position with legs together and arms at their sides, then jumps to a position with the legs spread apart and their arms brought together over their head, and then jumps back into the starting position; also known as a "star jump" or "side-straddle hop", which was derived from a jointed puppet that could be made to caper or cavort by pulling an attached string. See FRONT LEANING REST, PUSH-UP, DROP, SQUAT, AIRBORNE SHUFFLE, DAILY DOZEN, PT, PCPT, PFT, EXERCISE, PAIN.

JUMPIN' JUNKIE :
derisive nickname for any PARATROOPER, being an enthusiastic devotee of parachuting and/or skydiving; also called "jump chump" or "leap freak". Compare DOPE ON A ROPE; see AIRBORNE, PARACHUTE, DZ, STATIC LINE, FREE-FALL, HIT THE SILK.

JUMPMASTER :
any Master Parachutist certified to supervise the loading and para-drop of personnel and equipment from various aircraft; commonly called MASTER BLASTER, this AIRBORNE-qualified individual is assigned to control the PARATROOPERs from the time they enter the aircraft until they exit. The JUMPMASTER training course is a prerequisite for advancement from basic or novice to senior parachutist status [participated in a minimum of 30 jumps (including 15 jumps with combat equipment) and served with an Airborne unit for at least 24 months] and later advancement to master parachutist status [participated in a minimum of 65 jumps (25 jumps with combat equipment) and served with an Airborne unit for at least 36 months]. Free-fall parachuting requires skydivers to "self-jumpmaster". See STICK COMMANDER, Q-COURSE, WINGS, CENTURY WINGS, PARACHUTE, DROPMASTER, BAILOUT; compare LOADMASTER, CREW CHIEF, KICKER, BEACHMASTER.

JUMP POCKETS :
slang for the side-mounted cargo pockets featured on FATIGUE pants and field trousers, as being the only pockets accessible to fully suited paratroopers; these "pockets" originated as pouches made by RIGGERs that each paratrooper added to his uniform. Also, the chest-mounted cargo pockets featured on the jungle FATIGUE BLOUSE, as derived from the WWII "jump jacket", slanted for ease of access; compare HIGH POCKETS. [nb: 'Pocket' is a diminutive of 'poke', a small bag or sack]

JUMP SCHOOL :
U.S. Army Infantry School
Airborne Committee
USAIS Abn Board
U.S. Army Airborne School
Army Abn Sch
a ground training center, also called "parachute school" or "airborne school", for the physical training and technical indoctrination of parachutists in the proper deployment and control of this tactical medium, including PARATROOPERs and Military Free Fall (MFF) skydivers, which training facilities have been located on various military installations, especially Fort Benning, Georgia and Lakehurst Naval Air Station, New Jersey. [nb: the JUMP SCHOOL in Vietnam was located at Dong Ba Thin and Long Thanh, including Military Free-Fall (MFF) and High-Altitude Low-Opening (HALO) training (with steerable "T U" and "Double L" canopy modifications) from 1969 for SPECIAL OPERATIONS] It has been said that the Army JUMP SCHOOL has cleverly crammed an ordinary three-day training course into an intense three-week program of physical fitness and harassment that will sufficiently frustrate any sane individual into joyously leaping out of a perfectly good airplane just to conclude the ordeal! See BLACK HATS, ABN, AIRBORNE, PARACHUTE, JUMPIN' JUNKIE, STATIC LINE, DROGUE, CUT-AWAY, STREAMER, PLF, STICK, DINGLEBERRY, FLIGHT BAG, JUMP BOOTS, AIRHEAD, DZ, HEAVY DROP, FREE-FALL, GANG-BANG, JUMP TOWER, VWT, JSD, TAB, OVAL, WINGS, TRASH, JUMPMASTER, GOLDEN KNIGHTS, CHUTING STARS, IRON MIKE, HANG TOUGH, AIRBORNE ALBUM, PROP BLAST, AIRBORNE SHUFFLE, ROMMEL'S ASPARAGUS, SQUAT, THREE-IN-ONE, GROUNDED; compare RIGGER, AIR ASSAULT, PATHFINDER. [v: Siwash ("At Good Old Siwash" by George Helgeson Fitch (1911)] [nb: U.S. Army observation balloonists and combat pilots were offered parachute training during and after World War I, but actual jumping was not required, as issue of the parachute was optional, even after a pilot saved his own life by bailing-out of a damaged airplane in 1921; except for Mitchell's October 1928 demonstration of "air infantry" tactics, parachute training was curtailed during the interwar years as an economizing gesture] [v: Parachuting Terms, and Parachuting History]

JUMP SPEED :
the airspeed at which paratroopers, parachutists, and other aircrew can exit with comparative safety from an aircraft in flight. [cf: terminal velocity]

JUMP-START :
to act, or to be inspired to act, in a lively and energetic manner, as if electrified or galvanized; that is, to suddenly and urgently begin performing some necessary action as if immediately going from complete rest to full speed; also expressed as "jump to it" or "on the bounce"; see MOVE OUT, OP TEMPO, SADDLE-UP, GOOD TO GO, COMBAT LOADED, SPIN-UP, MISSION READY, UNLIMBER, LOCK 'n' LOAD, CHARGE, FOLLOW ME, WATCH MY SMOKE, STORM, CHAMP AT THE BIT, HOOPLA, BATTAILOUS. Also, to supply ignition or launch power from an external source (booster); see APU. [nb: to "jump the gun" is a sports or racing metaphor, having nothing to do with military weaponry; being used in the same way as "jump the queue", "jump to conclusions", "jump bail", or "jump ship"]

JUMP TOWER :
a construction used in JUMP SCHOOL to train aspiring parachutists in the proper method of exiting an airplane or of steering a deployed PARACHUTE before the final phase of actual parachuting; compare VWT.

JUMP WING / JUMP WINGS :
see PARA WING / PARA WINGS.

JUNCTION CITY :
major ground operations in WAR ZONE C, including AIRBORNE assault on 22 Feb 1967; related to CEDAR FALLS operation.

JUNGLE BAGS :
slang for tropical-weight solid-green jungle FATIGUES or utilities, an affectation employed by the coterie of PROFESSOR-types in scruffy uniforms, being an imitation of the so-called "Oxford bags"; compare ERDL, LEOPARD, TIGER STRIPE, CAMMIES, ZOOM BAGS, ZOOT SUIT; see DRESS.

JUNGLE BOOTS :
jungle boots
jungle boots
adapted from British and Australian footwear worn during the Malaysian campaign, this combat boot featured a direct molded sole (DMS) of lug cleats, leather vamp with drain vents, leather heel counter, anti-penetration insole, and reinforced green fabric legging with grommeted eyelets for lacing. It was designed to dry more quickly than all-leather boots in the tropical conditions of Southeast Asia. Several versions of this lightweight boot were issued, featuring less leather, different cleats, and adding an anti-penetration midsole. Early attempts to issue these boots to ARVN troops required adjustments: Vietnamese feet were too small, and MONTAGNARD feet were too wide. A heavy rubber and canvas duck version of the rough-out brown leather two-BUCKLE BOOTS was under development as JUNGLE BOOTS when WWII ended, so were never issued. JUNGLE BOOTS became the prototype for the tan fabric and suede DESERT BOOTS issued during the GULF WARs. Wear of the green-and-black JUNGLE BOOTS is no longer authorized after 30 April 2008. See BATA BOOTS, PANAMA SOLE, LPC, FOOTWEAR.

JUNGLE DRUMS :
see BAMBOO TELEGRAPH, BACK CHANNEL, SCUTTLEBUTT, POOP, GRIPEVINE, RUMOR.

JUNGLE EXPERT :
full color Jungle Expert
pocket patch subdued Jungle Expert pocket
patch
Jungle Expert
certification awarded to US Army personnel for completion of a jungle warfare course of instruction; graduates are authorized to wear the galleon insignia of the 33rd Inf Rgt with attached "Jungle Expert" tab on left FATIGUE shirt pocket. After Operation Brush Bay in April 1951, Army Unit 7437 was tasked to develop a Jungle Operations Training Center under the command of the 33rd Inf Rgt (ca1954) and the 20th Inf Rgt (1956) at Ft Sherman, Canal Zone, Panama. This 3-week course became the separate Jungle Warfare Training Center in April 1960, but on 1 July 1963 was subordinated as the Jungle Operations Committee under the School of the Americas, Ft Gulick, CZ, Panama. On 1 July 1968, JOC was redesignated Jungle Operations Training Center at Ft Sherman, CZ, Panama; and placed under the operational command of 8th Special Forces Group (later SAF, 3/7th SFGAbn) on 1 July 1970. In March 1969, the US Army Southern Operations RECONDO course (3-weeks) was added to the JOTC curriculum, awarding an arrowhead pocket patch very similar to the MACV RECONDO School patch (including the central 'V' motif). On 30 June 1972, JOTC was transferred to Atlantic Area Installation Command, deactivated on 24 Feb 1975, and reorganized under 3/7SFGAbn together with assets transferred from the USAF Tropical Survival School, which was closed at the same time. On 18 July 1975, JOTC was subordinated to the 193rd Inf Bde, Ft Amador, CZ, Panama. See BUSHMASTER, BOONIE RAT, FANK TRAINING COMMAND; compare MOUNTAINEER, WINTER WARRIOR. [v: bushranger]

JUNGLE JIM :
properly "Operation Jungle Jim", a 1962 project of the USAF 1st Air Commando Group dispatched to South Vietnam from the Special Air Warfare Center at Eglin AFB; see DIRTY THIRTY, FARMGATE, AIR COMMANDO.

JUNGLE JUICE :
see JUICE, TORPEDO JUICE, MOONSHINE, CLEANSKIN, HOOCH.

JUNGLE MUSIC :
derogatory reference to jazz, bop / bebop, calypso, raggae, blues, rhythm 'n' blues, salsa, gospel and soul music that's current during the post-WWII era, and is predominantly composed and performed by BLACK or Afro-American musicians; a denigrating association between the primitive peoples of Africa, Oceania, Antilles, or Australia and the ostensibly inferior cultures that are responsible for generating such unrefined and unmelodic noise! ... a bigoted assessment of popular music based upon prejudice. Compare YELLOW MUSIC, RED MUSIC. [v: scat, Afro-pop, soca, soukous, hip-hop, rap music; cf: rock 'n' roll, country 'n' western]

JUNGLE PENETRATOR :
a compact device, somewhat resembling an anchor, attached to the winch cable of a rescue helicopter (eg: KINGBEE, HUSKY, JOLLY GREEN GIANT, etc), and used for extracting a person from dense vegetation or other extreme terrain conditions; also called "forest penetrator". If the device becomes entangled or the (too heavy or unbalanced) load affects flight and jeopardizes the helicopter, the PILOT or CREW CHIEF can sever the cable with a small explosive charge (TORPEDO), jettisoning the device and its load. See HOT HOIST, CHOPPER, SAR, CSAR.

JUNGLE ROT :
various skin-conditions caused by the environment or sepsis, and usually treated benignly by improved hygiene and healthy exposure in air and light; may sometimes be psychosomatic indicator of combat stress. See CONVERSION SYMPTOMS, FUO, YAW. [nb: the practice of not wearing underpants during field operations was common during the VIETNAM WAR as an aid to disease prevention, and has since acquired the designation: "going commando"]

JUNIOR BIRDMAN :
slang for a student at the U.S. Air Force Academy (USAFA) in Colorado Springs, CO; also known as DOOLIE or ZOOMIE; see CADET, MISTER, FALCON, TRADE SCHOOL.

JUNIOR G-MAN :
see BABY 007, SECRET SQUIRREL, CID, NIS, OSI, DIS, SECRET AGENT, G-MAN. [nb: after exposure to the popular films about the fictitious British secret agent, Southeast Asian peoples began referring to James Bond as "kiss-kiss, bang-bang"]

JUNK :
flat bottomed and high sterned sea-going BOAT with battened lugsail rigging, and a fenestrated RUDDER; its keel is known as a "dragon's spine"; the term JUNK derives from pidgin Chinese. Essentially unchanged since before the second century AD, the old style JUNK embodies all the operating principles of the modern yacht; see COMPARTMENT, compare SAMPAN, SMACK, SCOW. [nb: the hull on European ships bears a resemblance to fish, while the hull on Asian junks bears a resemblance to waterfowl] Also, slang for narcotics; see DOPE, CAN SA, GRASS, HAY, COLORS, LSD, ANGEL DUST, SPICE, BATH SALTS, SMACK, HOT SHOT, CHINA WHITE, STICK, STONED, WASTED, TAR, HUBBLE-BUBBLE, BAD MEDICINE. [v: gateway drug, hard drug, soft drug, designer drug, prodrug; cf: miracle drug, wonder drug]

JUNKET :
a trip taken by a government official at public expense, ostensibly for the purpose of obtaining information, but often combined with a pleasurable excursion; compare GARDEN SPOT, MAGICAL MYSTERY TOUR, HARDSHIP TOUR, DRUNKEX, GHOST WALK. [nb: civilians go 'abroad' while soldiers go 'overseas']

JUNK FORCE :
pocket patch for Junk Force
Junk Force
Naval Advisory Group in Mekong Delta operating from small native craft (JUNK, SAMPAN, SMACK) and light patrol boats (PBL, PBR); also called "Brown Water Navy". The native Vietnamese wooden JUNKS, being about thirty feet long and often without auxiliary engines, that were used for fishing and transport, were adopted by U.S. Navy JUNK FORCE interdiction missions for concealment among the fishing fleets, for improved surveillance and maneuverability, and for access to close shore work. See NAG, MRF.

JURY :
the jury arose in medieval times as a body of neighbours who were summoned by a public officer to give, on oath, a true answer to some question or legal hearing; during and after the Domesday Inquest (1086), the Norman kings of England regarded the jury (as derived from "to swear") as an alternative to "trial by combat" or "trial by ordeal". The tribunal of magistrates who compose the board of judges in a court martial also comprise the jury, rendering the verdict after pleadings and the punishment after consultation and deliberation. See ORDEAL, TRIAL, EXECUTIVE SESSION, MCM, UCMJ.

JURY-RIG :
to construct or repair something hastily by using whatever is at hand, especially as a temporary solution; a stopgap, makeshift, ad-lib [ad libitum], postfix, make-do, Afro-engineer. See FIELD EXPEDIENT, BAND-AID, JERRY-BUILT, PLAN B, WORK-AROUND, AD HOC, LONG-TAIL, LEAST RESISTANCE, CROSS-DECKING, COMMANDEER. [nb: "Creativity is doing more with less, while invention is doing something with nothing!"; "We've done so much with so little for so long that soon we'll be able to do everything with nothing instantaneously!"]

JUSMAG :
Joint United States Military Assistance Group.

JUSMAPG :
Joint US Military Advisory and Planning Group.

JUSPAO :
Joint United States Public Affairs Office.

JUST CAUSE :
the INCURSION of more than 25,000 troops into Panama, from 20 Dec 1989 to 31 Jan 1990, after a Marine sentry was shot following the 15 Dec 1989 declaration of war on the U.S. by the Panamanian legislature; jocularly known as "Operation Just Because". The apprehension of Panamanian head of state, Manuel Noriega ("the Pineapple"), was a prime objective due to his responsibility for the trafficking of illegal drugs into the United States, but he eluded capture, then later surrenders to custody, trial, and imprisonment after the UN denounces this invasion as a flagrant violation of international law. See ROOSEVELT COROLLARY, BANANA WARS. [nb: Invasion of Panama (1989): 40 battle deaths] [nb: during the 82nd Airborne Division's combat assault onto Panama's Torrijos Airport in Operation JUST CAUSE, armored vehicles (ie: M-551 Sheridan light reconnaissance tank) were parachuted into combat for the first time]

JUST DESERTS / DESERTS :
[ety: deserve] see FACE THE MUSIC, DAY OF RECKONING, RETRIBUTION, RETALIATION, REPRISAL, JUST WAR. [v: comeuppance]

JUSTICE :
(forthcoming); [nb: "It is better that ten guilty persons escape than that one innocent suffer." by William Blackstone; "Justice begins with the recognition of the necessity of sharing. The oldest law is that which regulates it, and this is still the most important law today and, as such, has remained the basic concern of all movements which have at heart the community of human activities and of human existence in general." by Elias Canetti; "Justice consists in doing no injury to men; decency in giving them no offence." by Marcus Tullius Cicero; "The law is an application of jurisprudence, but it takes people to render justice." anonymous; "There is one, and only one, thing in modern society more hideous than crime -- namely, repressive justice." by Simone Weil; "Injustice is relatively easy to bear; what stings is justice." by H.L. Mencken; "The love of justice is, for most men, only the courage to suffer injustice." by Comte de Lautréamont (Isidore-Lucien Ducasse); "Justice should not only be done, but should manifestly and undoubtedly be seen to be done." by Lord Hewart; "Let justice be done, though the world perish." by Ferdinand I]

JUST WAR :
a rational assertion, on moral or legal grounds, of the warrantable authority permitting a military action; typically consists of ideological criteria masquerading as a philosophical tenet that's asserted by one state in opposition to another, but can include religious sects (eg: HOLY WAR) and disfranchised factions (eg: REVOLUTION) which may not owe allegiance to any official entity. Covert or surrogate aggression by enemies of the commonweal frustrates the conventional practice of punishing violators of the public good until (as in GUERRILLA WARFARE) they attain support or standing, which (albeit marginal) legitimization tends to complicate any RETALIATION. International law has allowed war to be a legally permissible method of altering existing rights or evolving policy when remedying otherwise insolvable interstate controversies. Although some men have been deceived into sacrificing themselves for a lie, none has done so wittingly; in every instance, each contending side believes that it alone possesses moral authority, and the right to victory. See BLOODY SHIRT, CROSS THE RUBICON, WAR POWERS ACT, GUNBOAT DIPLOMACY, BIG STICK DIPLOMACY, SABER-RATTLING, GUNPOINT, ALL'S FAIR IN LOVE AND WAR, WARNING SHOT, CAT AMONG THE PIGEONS, FIGHTING WORDS, MORAL COURAGE, RETALIATION, MORAL VICTORY, FIGHTING MAD, RULES OF ENGAGEMENT (ROE), LAWS OF WAR. [nb: "And if also any one contend (in the fight), he is not crowned (for victory) unless he contend lawfully." 2 Timothy 2:5]

JV :
Junior Varsity; see AUGMENTEE, B TEAM, WAR TOURIST, EURO-WEENIE, CIVILIAN, RELATIVE RANK.




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